World Victory Road

World Victory Road (WVR) is a defunct Japanese Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) organization which promoted the Sengoku Raiden Championship (SRC) in Japan. The organization was formed in 2007 following the purchase of PRIDE FC by Zuffa. It operated in conjunction with the Japan Mixed Martial Arts Federation (JMM). The Sengoku championship was broadcast on Fuji TV and pay-per-view in Japan, and on HDNet in United States.

Beginning with the December 31 show, Sengoku was known as Sengoku Raiden Championship. „Raiden“ means „thunder and lightning“ and refers to a legendary 18th century sumo. WVR exec Kokuho said they hoped the initials „SRC“ will be more palatable to international audiences.

On March 12, 2011, it was reported that Don Quijote, a Japanese discount store chain serving as the primary sponsor of the promotion, had ceased all funding to WVR. That same day, WVR officials issued a press release stating that barring the sudden emergence of a new primary sponsor, the promotion was effectively finished.

The promotion received a boost in visibility in their endeavor to compete with DREAM when it reached a broadcast agreement for Fuji TV to televise matches in Japan. It was significant given the fact that this is the first MMA promotion to be televised on the network since it dropped PRIDE FC from its lineup in mid-2006. The events will be shown live on Fuji TV 739 and then a two-hour version later in the night on Fuji TV.

On February 6, 2009, HDNet announced they had reached and agreement with WVR to broadcast its Sengoku-events in America starting March 20, 2009.

WVR’s rules differ somewhat from the Mixed martial arts rules#Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts. Among the differences are the allowance of knees and stomps to the head of downed opponent while elbows to the head and soccer kicks are prohibited. Similar to the Unified Rules, fights have three rounds each lasting five minutes.

Michael Connarty

Michael Connarty (born 3 September 1947) is a British Labour Party politician, who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Linlithgow and Falkirk East from 2005 to 2015, and a variation of the same seat since 1992.

Michael Connarty was born in Coatbridge. He was educated at the local Roman Catholic High School (St. Patrick’s) on Muiryhall Street in the year below fellow MP John Reid and ahead of fellow MP Helen Liddell. He then studied at the University of Stirling, (1967–72) where he was elected as the sabbatical President of the Student Association from 1970–71 and received a BA in in 1972. He returned to study at Jordanhill College and Glasgow University 1975-76) where he received a Diploma in (DCE) in 1975. He was a special needs teacher from 1976 until he was elected to the House of Commons in 1992. He was also an Economics and Modern Studies teacher at a secondary school. He was elected as Honorary President of Stirling Student Association in 1983-84. He became a councillor on the Stirling District Council in 1977, becoming Council Leader in 1980 until he left the council in 1990. He was a member and Financial Comptroller of the Loch Lomond, Trossachs and Stirling Tourist Board 1981-1990. He was also a director of Stirling Economic and Enterprise Development Company (SEEDCO) from 1984-1990.

He unsuccessfully contested the parliamentary constituency of Stirling at the 1983 General Election but finished 5,133 behind the Conservative and Unionist future Secretary of State for Scotland Michael Forsyth. Connarty faced Forsyth again at Stirling at the 1987 General Election. Connarty came very close, but Forsyth was the eventual winner by a margin of 548.

Michael Connarty was elected to Westminster at the 1992 General Election for the Labour seat of Falkirk East with a majority of 7,969 following the retirement of the sitting MP Harry Ewing. Connarty used his maiden speech on 13 May 1992 to raise concerns about the fragility of the petro-chemical industry at Grangemouth, the largest town in Falkirk East .

Following the 1997 General Election he became the Parliamentary Private Secretaryto the Minister of Film and Tourism Tom Clarke but this appointment lasted only until 1998 when Clarke was sacked from government. Connarty has spent his parliamentary career as a backbencher and since 1998 has been a member of the European Scrutiny Select Committee, which is the committee responsible for scrutinising the legislation set by the European Parliament. He was appointed the Chair of the Committee from 2006-10. He was awarded the Inquisitor of the Year Award in the Threadneedle/Spectator Parliamentarian of the Year Awards in 2007 for his Chairmanship during the committee investigation into the Lisbon Treaty.

Connarty was chairman of the Tribune Group of left-wing Labour MPs. Following the creation of the Scottish Parliament in 1999, the Scottish boundaries were redrawn and his constituency was enlarged and renamed as Linlithgow and East Falkirk with the second highest electorate in Scotland at 81,500. Linlithgow constituency was represented at Westminster by the former Father of the House of Commons, Tam Dalyell until he retired at the 2005 General Election, Linlithgow.

In 2011, he was appointed a UK Parliament representative on the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE). In 2013 he was elected as Chair of the PACE sub-committee on Education, Youth and Sport issues. He successfully acted as rapporteur for a report on recommendations on ‚Youth Access to Fundamental Rights‘ adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly in April 2013. He was a member of a special Ad-hoc Sub Committee investigating ‚Governance and Corruption in Football‘ meeting with FIFA and EUFA and the ECA. The report was tabled by Anne Brasseur (ALDE, Luxembourg) and adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly in 2013. He was appointed Rapporteur for a follow – up report on The Reform of Football Governance focusing on FIFA and EUFA(and the awarding of the Football World Cup to Qatar by FIFA) in January 2014.

He is a supporter of the British Humanist Association and is Co-chair of the All Party Parliamentary Jazz Appreciation Group and vice president of the National Youth Jazz Collective.

In November 2008, Connarty was one of 18 MPs who signed a Commons motion backing a Team GB football team at the 2012 Olympics, saying football „should not be any different from other competing sports and our young talent should be allowed to show their skills on the world stage“. The football governing bodies of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are all opposed to a Great Britain team, fearing it would stop them competing as individual nations in future tournaments.[citation needed]

Connarty was Vice Chair of the Parliamentary Group on Human Trafficking since 2011. He is an active participant in the Parliamentarians Against Human Trafficking network working with like minded politicians across the EU, set up by the Human Trafficking Foundation. His Private Members Bill, Transparency of UK Company Supply Chains, which would have required UK Companies to audit and report on the ethical quality of their supply chain, was ‚talked out‘ by Jacob Rees-Mogg during its second reading on 18 January 2013.

He married Margaret Doran in 1969. They have a son and daughter. They also have two granddaughters and a grandson.

On 19 May 2009, the Daily Telegraph revealed that Connarty was the fifth highest claiming MP in the UK, having claimed £156,207 in allowances between 2007 and 2008, excluding travel costs. He replied by saying that the information upon which the revelations were based was stolen property.

Чемпионат Европы по лёгкой атлетике 1982

Афины, Греция




6 сентября 1982

12 сентября 1982


13-й чемпионат Европы по лёгкой атлетике прошёл с 6 по 12 сентября 1982 года на Олимпийском стадионе в Афинах, столице Греции.

В соревнованиях приняли участие 756 атлетов из 29 стран Европы. Был разыгран 41 комплект медалей (24 у мужчин и 17 у женщин).

Сокращения: WR — мировой рекорд | ER — рекорд Европы | NR — национальный рекорд | CR — рекорд чемпионата
Курсивом выделены участники, выступавшие за эстафетные команды только в предварительных забегах

* Для определения победителя в соревнованиях десятиборцев использовалась старая система начисления очков. Пересчёт с использованием современных таблиц перевода результатов в баллы (принятых в 1985 году) приведён в скобках.

* Для определения победителя в соревнованиях семиборок использовалась старая система начисления очков. Пересчёт с использованием современных таблиц перевода результатов в баллы (принятых в 1985 году) приведён в скобках.

Медали в 41 дисциплине лёгкой атлетики завоевали представители 19 стран-участниц.

  Принимающая страна

SS Clan Fraser (1938)

The SS Clan Fraser was a British cargo steamship. She served in the Second World War and was bombed and sunk in Greece in 1941.

Clan Chisholm was one of the Clan Line’s Cameron-class steamships, built by the Greenock & Grangemouth Dockyard Co Ltd, Greenock and launched on 20 December 1938 and completed in February 1939. She was registered in Glasgow.

Chisholm had 20 corrugated furnaces with a combined grate area of 402 square feet (37 m2). They heated five single-ended boilers with a combined heating surface of 17,780 square feet (1,652 m2). These supplied steam at 220 lbf/in2 to a pair of three-cylinder steam triple expansion engines. Exhaust steam from each engine’s low-pressure cylinder fed one of a pair of low pressure steam turbines. All the engines were built by J.G. Kincaid & Co of Greenock. The combined power output of this plant was rated at 1,043 NHP. She was propelled by twin screws, each driven by one triple-expansion engine and one turbine.

Clan Fraser sailed independently for the first year of the Second World War. She worked between the Indian sub-continent, southern Africa, Australia, Britain and the Mediterranean without being part of a convoy until 5 September 1940, when she sailed carrying general cargo from the Firth of Clyde to Methil with Convoy WN 13. At the end of the month she returned from Methil to the Clyde with Convoy OB 222.

Clan Fraser was one of the three fast merchant ships that took part in Operation Collar, a convoy to supply Malta and Alexandria. An attempt by Italian forces to intercept the ships led to the Battle of Cape Spartivento, after which Clan Fraser and her sister Clan Forbes continued on to Malta.

Clan Fraser and Clan Forbes returned to Gibraltar in Convoy MG 1, and Fraser continued to the Clyde under escort. She then resumed independent sailing, first to South Africa and then via the Indian Ocean to Aden. There she joined Convoy BN 21 to Suez carrying a cargo of stores. She passed through the Suez Canal. At Port Saïd, carrying a cargo of munitions, she joined Convoy ANF 24, with which she reached the Port of Piraeus in Greece on 4 April.

On 6 April 1941 German forces invaded Greece and Luftwaffe bombers led by Hans-Joachim ‚Hajo‘ Herrmann attacked shipping in Piraeus. Clan Fraser was in port still unloading her arms and 200 tons of TNT. At 0315 hrs she was hit and destroyed when her TNT exploded. She sank in the harbour, with six killed and nine wounded. Her Master, J.H. Giles, was among the survivors. The shock of the blast was felt 15 miles (24 km) away in Athens, where doors were blown in; and in Psihiko, where windows were shattered. White hot débris detonated ΤΝΤ in other nearby ships, setting them and buildings ashore on fire. By morning the port had been severely damaged.

Olympische Sommerspiele 1976/Leichtathletik – 4 × 400 m (Männer)

Die 4-mal-400-Meter-Staffel der Männer bei den Olympischen Spielen 1976 in Montreal wurde am 30. und 31. Juli 1976 im Olympiastadion Montreal ausgetragen. 64 Athleten nahmen teil.

Olympiasieger wurde die Staffel der USA. Die Silbermedaille ging an Polen, die Bronzemedaille an die Staffel der BRD.

Staffeln aus der DDR, der Schweiz, Österreich und Liechtenstein nahmen nicht teil.

Die Staffeln absolvierten am 30. Juli zwei Vorläufe, in denen sich die jeweils drei besten sowie die nachfolgend zwei zeitschnellsten Mannschaften für das Finale am 31. Juli qualifizierten.

30. Juli, 17.00 Uhr: Vorläufe
31. Juli, 19.20 Uhr: Finale

Anmerkung: Alle Zeitangaben sind Ortszeit Montreal (UTC−5)

Die direkt qualifizierten Staffeln sind hellblau, die übrigen hellgrün unterlegt.

Die britische Mannschaft beendete das Rennen nicht. Schlußläufer Pascoe wurde der Staffelstab beim letzten Wechsel vom jamaikanischen Läufer Newman unabsichtlich aus der Hand geschlagen.

Vor Beginn der Spiele wurden neben der US-Staffel auch die Mannschaften des Vereinigten Königreiches und des Titelverteidigers Kenia hoch gehandelt. Kenia hatte sich dem Boykott afrikanischer Länder angeschlossen und nahm in Montreal nicht teil. Die britische Mannschaft hingegen hatte die Qualifikation für das Finale verpasst. So konnte die US-Staffel das Finalrennen sicher mit fast drei Sekunden Vorsprung auf Polen gewinnen.
Die polnische Staffel schaffte den ersten Medaillengewinn für ihr Land in dieser Disziplin.

Stockholm 1912 | Antwerpen 1920 | Paris 1924 | Amsterdam 1928 | Los Angeles 1932 | Berlin 1936 | London 1948 | Helsinki 1952 | Melbourne 1956 | Rom 1960 | Tokio 1964 | Mexiko-Stadt 1968 | München 1972 | Montréal 1976 | Moskau 1980 | Los Angeles 1984 | Seoul 1988 | Barcelona 1992 | Atlanta 1996 | Sydney 2000 | Athen 2004 | Peking 2008 | London 2012 | Rio de Janeiro 2016

Männer: 100 m | 200 m | 400 m | 800 m | 1500 m | 5000 m | 10.000 m | Marathon | 20 km Gehen | 110 m Hürden | 400 m Hürden | 3000 m Hindernis | 4 × 100 m | 4 × 400 m | Hochsprung | Stabhochsprung | Weitsprung | Dreisprung | Kugelstoßen | Diskuswurf | Hammerwurf | Speerwurf | Zehnkampf

Frauen: 100 m | 200 m | 400 m | 800 m | 1500 m | 100 m Hürden | 4 × 100 m | 4 × 400 m | Hochsprung | Weitsprung | Kugelstoßen | Diskuswurf | Speerwurf | Fünfkampf

Scott Griffiths

* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only and correct as of 23:19, 23 February 2016 (UTC).

Scott Robert Griffiths (born 27 November 1985) is an English professional footballer who plays as a full-back and is unattached.

He has played in the Football League for Dagenham & Redbridge, Peterborough United, Chesterfield, Crawley Town, Rotherham United, Plymouth Argyle and Luton Town. Griffiths has won three titles in his career; the Conference Premier with both Dagenham and Luton, and League Two with Chesterfield. He has been capped twice by the England C team.

Born in Westminster, Greater London, Griffiths started his career playing for Basildon-based team Beech United in 1998, before signing for Southend United’s youth system in 1999. He left in 2001 and joined the football academy at Thurrock and Basildon College, where he played for one year. Whilst playing for the academy team, they won their league and two cup competitions. He was also capped for Essex county football team, and missed out on a place in the England Under-19 team when he was injured before the final trial.

After college, aged 17, he signed for Isthmian League Division One North club Aveley.

On 11 August 2004, Griffiths signed for Conference National club Dagenham & Redbridge on a three-year contract. He made his debut as a 90th-minute substitute in a 4–1 away win over Forest Green Rovers on 17 August 2004. He was played at left back, and went on to make 18 league appearances in the 2004–05 season.

Griffiths‘ performances for Dagenham led to him being called up by the England National Game XI team. He played against the Netherlands in the last of England’s European Challenge Trophy group games on 29 November 2006, which saw them finish top of their group with maximum points. He also played in the 3–1 away defeat to Northern Ireland on 14 February 2007.

In the 2006–07 season, Dagenham & Redbridge gained promotion to League Two as Conference champions, with Griffiths playing in 45 of the club’s 46 league games. He continued to feature regularly following Dagenham’s promotion, playing in 41 and 44 league games during the 2007–08 and 2008–09 seasons respectively. He made 15 appearances for Dagenham during the 2009–10 season, before signing on loan for Championship club Peterborough United on 23 October 2009, with a view to a permanent move.

Griffiths left Dagenham having played in 222 games in all competitions, scoring four goals.

Griffiths signed a permanent three-and-a-half-year deal with Peterborough United on 22 January 2010. He played in 20 league games, as Peterborough were relegated to League One at the end of the season.

Griffiths was not seen to have future in the squad by new manager Gary Johnson, who loaned him to Chesterfield at the beginning of the 2010–11 season, on an initial month-long loan deal. He later had his loan extended for a further two months until 6 November 2010. After making 19 appearances for the club, Griffiths rejoined Chesterfield until the end of the season. Griffiths made a total of 33 appearances for Chesterfield during the season, helping them to win the League Two title.

Griffiths‘ next two seasons were characterised by short-term loan deals, as he failed to make another appearance for Peterborough. He joined League Two club Crawley Town on a one-month loan in September 2011, making six appearances. Griffiths returned to Chesterfield on 25 November 2011, signing a loan deal until 2 January 2012, playing in four matches. He then joined League Two club Rotherham United on loan on 10 January 2012 for the remainder of the 2011–12 season, making eight appearances.

He featured in a behind closed doors game for Forest Green Rovers in September 2012 against Bournemouth, and later joined Plymouth Argyle in League Two on loan for one month.

Having returned to Peterborough in November 2012, Griffiths left the club at the end of January 2013 after his contract was cancelled six months early by mutual consent.

Griffiths signed for Conference Premier club Luton Town on 25 March 2013, linking back up with his former Dagenham & Redbridge manager John Still. He signed a short-term contract until the end of the 2012–13 season. After impressing in the six games he played for the club, Luton tied Griffiths to a one-year contract extension. He played in every league game of Luton’s successful 2013–14 season as the club were crowned Conference Premier champions, with Griffiths a part of the defence that kept a club-record 23 clean sheets. Griffiths played enough games throughout the season to trigger an extension clause in his contract, keeping him at Luton until June 2015.

He played in 35 league games throughout the 2014–15 season, earning a further year’s extension to his contract in the process.

During the 2015–16 season, Griffiths made 24 appearances in all competitions under the management of John Still and caretaker manager Andy Awford, before the appointment of Nathan Jones as the new Luton manager on 6 January 2016.

On 30 January 2016, Griffiths joined National League club Woking on a 28-day loan. On the same day, Griffiths made his Woking debut in a 2–2 draw with Barrow, in which he scored an own goal to give Barrow a 1–0 lead. He made four appearances for the club in all competitions.

On 10 May 2016, it was announced that Griffiths would not have his contract renewed. He left the club upon the expiry of his contract.

Dagenham & Redbridge


Luton Town


Papadu (also known as Papanna and Pap Rai) (died 1710) was a highwayman and bandit of early-18th century India who rose from humble beginnings to become a folklore hero. His deeds have been described by historians Barbara and Thomas Metcalf as „Robin Hood-like“, while another historian, Richard Eaton, considers him to be a good example of a social bandit.

Papadu lived during the period when the Mughal Empire had expanded its interests in South India and when tensions between the Muslim ruler Aurangzeb and his Hindu populace were rising. Towards the end of his life, after the death of Aurangzeb and amid the subsequent power struggle for succession, Papadu was able to dramatically enhance his fortunes, in particular as a consequence of a raid on the wealthy city of Warangal. Although of humble origin, he assumed some of the manners of a king.

Between 1702 and 1709 Papadu and his men were besieged four times while occupying the fort at Shahpur. He was captured and executed in 1710.

Much of the information relating to Papadu is of the quasi-historical type. His exploits, and those of other folk heroes of his area and era, are documented primarily in ballads that have passed through the generations and are still sung locally. It is in the context of studying folklore and linguistics that much of the evidence, such as it is, has been collected. However, there is also the work of Khafi Khan, a contemporary chronicler who based his writings on official reports circulating in the Mughal empire.

Papadu was born in the 17th century to a Telugu family of a caste whose occupation was that of toddy tapping. Which of the several Telugu toddy-tapping castes he may have belonged to is uncertain. It had been suggested, in 1874, that the name Papadu but Eaton believes that he was a Gamalla or Goundla, Gowda and other modern scholars such as the Metcalfs refer only to the occupation. Eaton has noted that numerous castes recite the Papadu folklore and that this infers his later actions and the support for them were not caste-based. Eaton also notes that there are versions of the ballad still recited today that suggest his family may have attained positions in society outside those usually assigned to their caste: his father may have been headman of a village and his brother a minor commander in an army, whilst his sister married into considerable wealth.

Papadu’s family lived in the Golkonda region and his birthplace may have been Tarikonda, a village around 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Warangal. Until 1323 this region had been ruled by a Hindu maharajah and thereafter was under the control of Muslim Mughal Emperors. The Bahmani Sultanate broke up into five smaller kingdoms in the sixteenth century and Golkonda came under the control of the Qutb Shahi dynasty. They inherited an area that was relatively easy to govern as, even prior to the sultanate, there was an accepted social structure, which included warrior-cultivator groups and chieftains as well as a shared use of the Telugu language and literature. Sultans such as Ibrahim Qutb Shah (r. 1550–1580) patronised Hindu society and customs, as well as investing in projects to improve irrigation, all of which cemented a relationship reasonably similar to that which might have existed had they been Hindu rulers themselves. The native people of Golkonda or, at least, those in positions of influence, were won over and this was particularly significant with regard to the Nayaka chieftains, whom Eaton describes as having „an ethic of courage and steadfast loyalty to their political overlords.“

The mutual respect that ensued enabled Golkonda to become an extremely wealthy region, as evidenced by the construction of Hyderabad. However, by the 1630s it was apparent that troubles lay ahead. Shah Jahan, who was the Mughal emperor at Delhi, began to exact tribute from the Qutb Shahi sultan and then sent his son, Aurangzeb, to represent him in Golkonda. Aurangzeb eventually succeeded in gaining total control of the region in 1687, making it the last of the independent sultanates to be annexed to that of Delhi. Many changes followed this event, and they generally caused a reduction in the influence of those people who had once been notable within Golkonda. Furthermore, the conquest had caused or coincided with crop failures, famine, cholera epidemics and other disasters, between 1686 and 1690, while the post-conquest era saw Aurangzeb bleeding Golkonda of its wealth in order to finance projects elsewhere.

Papadu had no desire to remain a lowly toddy-tapper and his refusal to work in the traditional occupation of his caste was one of his early acts of defiance. It has been speculated that the contradiction between the position of his caste and the roles in society that his father, brother and sister may have attained could explain Papadu’s refusal to accept the restrictive ritualised norms. That he later married a woman who was almost certainly not of a toddy-tapper caste, since she was the sister of a faujdar (military governor), is also a possible indicator of this.

Papadu had a cruel streak and the folklore describes him raping a bride as well as kidnapping other women. In the 1690s he stole money and property from his wealthy widowed sister, assaulting her in the process. With these funds he built a hill-fort at Tarikonda and drew a band of men around him who were willing to become highwaymen, and then proceeded to rob traders who used the nearby route between Hyderabad and Warangal, the erstwhile capital of Golkonda. The bandits did not stay at Tarikonda for long: the disruption and loss caused by their raids led to them being driven out by the local zamindars (hereditary chieftain-landlords) and faujdars. The opposition of the zamindars was to become a theme of his life, in part because of the destabilising threat that he posed to society and, more specifically, to their own vested interests in inherited lands and the power base implicit in their control of local militias.

Moving over a hundred miles away to Kaulas, Papadu spent a period in the employ of Venkat Rao, a zamindar of that area. It was not long before Rao found it necessary to imprison him, as Papadu’s liking for banditry resurfaced, but within months Papadu and all of Rao’s other prisoners were freed by the latter’s wife, who thought that showing such compassion might cause the health of her sick son to be blessed. Papadu moved to Shahpur, not far from his old haunt at Tarikonda, where he established another hill-fort and again recruited people to pursue his banditry.

It was at this time that he began to kidnap women. The outrage caused by this and by his other disruptive activities caused Aurangzeb to be petitioned in order that something might be done to stop Papadu. A force was sent to serve achieve that end but its faujdar was killed in fighting. The matter was then passed into the hands of Dil Khan, the deputy-governor of Hyderabad, who determined to lay siege on the fort.

Although the siege was successful, forcing Papadu to flee and enabling Khan to blow up the fort, it was not long before the brigands returned. Khan had moved back to Hyderabad and Papadu was able to rebuild the Shahpur fort, this time using a stone construction that was much stronger than the previous edifice. He went on to wage campaigns that resulted in the capture of other local forts and enhanced his growing reputation as a potential regional warlord.

Another imperial attempt to curb Papadu occurred in 1706, when Khan had returned to the region following a posting elsewhere. Khan engaged the services of another bandit, who was probably Riza Khan, to challenge Papadu but the attempt came to naught. A year later, Dil Khan determined to take responsibility for the task himself but again failed. He took a considerable force to Shahpur and laid siege for two months or so, as he had done previously. On this occasion it was money that decided the outcome because Papadu bribed Khan in order to have the siege lifted.

Papadu was emboldened by this success. On 31 March 1708 he initiated an attack on the heavily fortified former capital city of Warangal with a force of between 2500 and 3500 men. This action was planned to coincide with the eve of the Muslim celebrations of Ashura, when the city walls would be poorly manned, if at all. In a wider context, the timing was opportunistic as the forces of empire were in some disarray due to a power struggle that had developed upon the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. The city, which had become an important commercial centre, was looted extensively but the larger prize came in the form of the abduction of many wealthy and influential residents, who were then imprisoned at Shahpur in a compound constructed that purpose.

The successful raid on Warangal, with all the riches that resulted from it, propelled Papadu to new heights. He was able to arm his fort and his followers with the latest weaponry and, as Eaton describes:

He also began comporting himself in the style of a raja. Élite bearers carried him around in a palanquin, and an élite guard accompanied him when mounted on a horse. If he acted like a king, he had actually become a parvenu landholder. For we hear that he raided passing Banjaras (itinerant grain carriers) and seized their cattle, which he put to work ploughing his fields for him.

By now Papadu’s support among the landless peasantry must have been considerable, as evidenced by his ability to raise large numbers of people to fight or to build on his behalf and the numbers that would have been required to tend his 10,000–12,000 captured cattle and extensive landholdings. Despite his enhanced status, Papadu desired more and raided Bhongir on 1 June 1708, being the occasion of a Muslim festival. Although many hostages were taken – he had promised silver to those who captured females, and gold if they were of high status – the raid was not as successful as that at Warangal, at least in part because an accident caused the insurgents to give away their intentions. Eaton has described it as a „fiasco“.

In 1709 Papadu demonstrated his desire for recognition when he attended an audience at Hyderabad with Bahadur Shah I, who by that time was beginning to assert some authority as emperor in the fractious post-Aurangzeb court power struggles. The bandit gave the emperor an array of wealth in his search to be recognised as a tribute-paying chieftain, and he was rewarded with an honorific robe. Loud protests followed this recognition, especially from influential Muslims of the area whose relatives had been kidnapped and people who decried that an emperor would recognise a person of such low caste. Eaton describes that the robe „… seemed to represent official acknowledgement of his status as a legitimate, tribute-paying nayaka-zamindar … Landholders claiming descent from ancient nayaka families were simply incensed at such impudence.“ Bahadur Shah had to back down and he announced that Papadu would be killed, with the responsibility for achieving this end being given to Dilawar Khan.

The beginning of the fall of Papadu can be dated to June 1709. Prisoners at Shahpur – including his brother-in-law, the faujdar – managed to overturn their captors and take possession of the fort while Papadu was besieging another fort elsewhere. Simultaneously, Dilawar Khan was advancing on him and, unaware of the situation at Shahpur, Papadu thought it prudent to defend his position by lifting his siege and retreating to his base. When he reached Shahpur he found that the tables were turned on him: he was fired upon by his former captives, using his own cannon, and with the imminent arrival of Khan he was forced to take refuge in the very compound that he had constructed to imprison them. Finding his position there to be untenable, and facing the desertion of some of his own forces, he decamped to the fort at Tarikonda, leaving Khan to take control of the wealth within Shahpur in accordance with instructions of his superior, the governor of Hyderabad.

Yusuf Khan, the Hyderabad governor, sent a force of several thousand to besiege Tarikonda and this became a prolonged affair, lasting until March 1710. At that point, Yusuf Khan determined to take personal charge, doubling the number of imperial forces to around 12,000 and being further aided by the provision of at least 30,000 soldiers – cavalry and infantry – supplied by local landowners. This concentration of support from Hindu chieftains, together with the fact that they were the first to oppose him when he was originally based at Tarikonda and evidence that he attacked both Muslims and Hindus, demonstrate that Papadu’s motivations and the popular support for them were not based on religious considerations. Claims that he was a „Hindu warrior“ are further negated by analysis of the names of his followers noted in the ballads, which appear to demonstrate that those within his group included Muslims and non-Hindu tribal peoples in almost equal proportion to Hindus.

Despite the considerable forces set against him at Tarikonda, it was bribery that caused significant losses for Papadu: his men, by now weary, hungry and demoralised, were tempted to defect by offers of double pay made in May. The final straw was when Papadu ran out of gunpowder and was forced to flee in disguise. Although wounded, he was able to reach the village of Hasanabad before being betrayed by a toddy tapper and captured by the brother-in-law who had previously been his prisoner. He was executed a few days later. The traditional accounts say that the method of execution was that of decapitation, and that thereafter his body was cut into pieces and his head sent to Delhi.

Richards and Rao refer to Papadu’s attempt as a „dual rebellion“ and that phrase has been used subsequently by the Metcalfs, among others. They say that in leading such a rebellion „against both imperial and local chiefly authority, Papadu struck too boldly at the most basic ordering of society, and thus mobilized against him all those with a stake in the established hierarchies of caste and wealth.“

Aside from the folklore upon which much of the knowledge regarding Papadu relies, there has been at least one film production telling his story: Sardar Papanna, directed by Pratani Ramakrishna Goud and starring Krishna, was released in 2006.





Sadowsky Guitars Limited is an American high-end guitar, bass guitar, and preamp manufacturer in Long Island City, New York.

The company was started in 1979 and took its name from its founder, Roger Sadowsky, who is known for „being one of the industry’s master craftsmen“. As of 2011 the company has 10 employees involved in instrument manufacturing excluding Sadowsky himself. Sadowsky started out modifying vintage Fender basses, which were at that time inexpensive, to improve their sound by adding more noise reduction technology and replacing the passive electronics with an active preamp, which increases the bass’s signal-to-noise ratio. Once the price of vintage bass guitars began to increase, Sadowsky started making new bass guitars, and then signature models.

The Sadowsky „NYC“ line of instruments consists of four- and five-string bass guitars and six-string guitars. The bass guitars have a 34 inch scale length with no current models offered in longer or shorter scale lengths.

The Sadowsky Metro line are the basic models of Sadowsky NYC basses made by Sadowsky Tokyo and offers most of the same features, minus the custom options, of the NYC line at a more affordable price.

Sadowsky, as of 2003, also offers a line of archtop guitars. There are currently five models available, the Jim Hall model, the Jimmy Bruno model, the semi-hollow model, the LS-17 (long scale/17″ lower bout) and the SS-15 (short scale/15″ lower bout).

The various archtop guitar models are played and endorsed by many professional guitarists.

Sadowsky bass models are used by high-profile musicians

Crawford County (Wisconsin)


Crawford County er et fylke i den amerikanske delstaten Wisconsin. Det ligger i den sørvestlige delen av staten og grenser mot Vernon County i nord, Richland County i øst og mot Grant County i sør. Det har også grense mot delstaten Iowa i vest.

Crawford Countys totale areal er 1 552 km² hvorav 69 km² er vann. I 2000 hadde fylket 17 243 innbyggere og administrasjonssenteret ligger i byen Prairie du Chien.

Fylket, som sammen med Brown County, var et av de opprinnelige fylkene i området har fått sitt navn etter William H. Crawford som var finansminister under president James Monroe.

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The Big Short (film)

The Big Short is a 2015 American drama film directed and co-written by Adam McKay. It is based on the non-fiction 2010 book The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine by Michael Lewis about the financial crisis of 2007–2008, which was triggered by the United States housing bubble. The film stars Christian Bale, Steve Carell, Ryan Gosling, and Brad Pitt.

Distributed by Paramount Pictures, the film began a limited release in the U.S. on December 11, 2015, followed by a wide release on December 23, 2015. The film was nominated for five Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Supporting Actor for Bale, and won in the category of Best Adapted Screenplay.

The film is noted for the unconventional techniques it employs to explain complex financial instruments: among others, cameo appearances by Margot Robbie, Anthony Bourdain, Selena Gomez, and Richard Thaler, who explain concepts such as subprime mortgages and collateralized debt obligations directly to the audience. Several other actors also break the fourth wall, most frequently Gosling, who serves as the narrator.

In 2005, eccentric hedge fund manager Michael Burry discovers that the U.S. housing market is extremely unstable, being based on high-risk subprime loans. Anticipating that the market will collapse during the second quarter of 2007, as interest rates would rise on many adjustable-rate mortgages, he envisions an opportunity to profit. His plan is to create a credit-default swap market, allowing him to bet against the mortgage-backed securities that are based on the housing market. He proposes his idea to several major investment and commercial banks. These firms, believing that the housing market is secure, readily accept his proposal. Burry’s huge long-term bet, in excess of $1 billion, entails paying substantial „premiums“ to the banks. This proviso incurs his clients‘ ire because they believe that he was wasting their capital. Many demand that he reverse course and sell his swaps, but Burry, confident in his analysis, refuses. When the rate-hike arrives and begins triggering heavy mortgage failures, however, the freefall he anticipates did not occur. As he later discovers, the banks collude with a major bond-rating company to maintain high ratings on bonds that were essentially worthless. This ploy allows the banks to sell off their losing positions before the true value of the bonds became known. Pressed by his investors, Burry restricts withdrawals from his fund, again angering his investors. Eventually, as the housing market collapsed as he predicted, the value of his fund increases by a net of 489% with an overall profit of over $2.5 billon, but the backlash he received from his investors, coupled with his own sense of disgust for the industry, convinces him to close down his fund.

Salesperson Jared Vennett is one of the first to understand Burry’s analysis, learning about Burry’s actions from one of the bankers that sold Burry an early credit default swap. Vennett uses his quant to verify that Burry’s predictions are likely true and decides to put his own stake in the credit default swap market, earning a fee on selling the swaps to firms who understand that they will be profitable when the underlying mortgage bonds fail. A misplaced phone call alerts hedge fund manager Mark Baum to his plans, and Baum is convinced to buy credit default swaps from Vennett due to his own personal distaste with the big banks. Vennett explains that the impending market collapse is being further perpetuated by the packaging of poor, unsellable loans into CDOs large enough to be considered diversified and thus given AAA ratings. Baum sends some of his staff to investigate the housing market in Miami, and they discover that mortgage brokers make more money if they only sell risky mortgages to the Wall Street banks – and these mortgages are so easy to acquire that a speculative housing bubble has been created. In early 2007, the mortgages loans begin to default, but the prices of the corresponding bonds increase and their ratings remain the same. When Baum questions an acquaintance at Standard & Poor’s, he discovers there is conflict of interest and dishonesty amongst the credit rating agencies. When Baum’s employees question Vennett’s motives, Vennett maintains his position and invites Baum and his team to the American Securitization Forum in Las Vegas, where Baum interviews CDO manager Wing Chau, who creates CDOs on behalf of an investment bank while claiming to represent the interests of investors. Chau describes how synthetic CDOs make a chain of increasingly large bets on the faulty loans, involving twenty times as much money as the loans themselves. Baum realizes, much to his horror, that the scale of the fraud will cause a complete collapse of the global economy. Baum convinces his business partners to go through with more credit default swaps, profiting from the situation at the banks‘ expense. Baum laments that the banks will not accept any of the blame for the crisis.

Eager young investors Charlie Geller and Jamie Shipley accidentally discover a prospectus by Vennett, which convinces them to become involved in the credit default swaps, as it fits their strategy of buying cheap insurance with big potential payouts. Since they are below the capital threshold for an ISDA Master Agreement needed to pull off the trades necessary to profit from the situation, they enlist the aid of retired securities trader Ben Rickert. When the value of mortgage bonds and CDOs rise despite the rise in defaults, Geller suspects the banks of committing fraud and thinks they should buy more swaps. The three visit the Mortgage Securities Forum in Las Vegas, where they learn that the Securities Exchange Commission has no regulations to monitor the activity of mortgage-backed securities. They manage to successfully make an even higher-payout deal than the other hedge funds by shorting the higher rated mortgage securities, as they will become worthless if defaults rise above 8% and their real value is likely less than stated. Shipley and Geller are initially ecstatic, but Rickert is disgusted, since they’re essentially celebrating an impending economic collapse and soon-to-be-lost lives (40,000 for each 1% rise in the unemployment rate). The two are horrified, and take a much more emotional stake in the collapse by trying to tip off the press and their families about the upcoming disaster and the rampant fraud amongst the big banks. Ultimately, they profit immensely, but are left with their faith in the system broken.

A note is given that CDOs have come back into the current market, under a different name: „bespoke tranche opportunity“.

In 2013, Paramount acquired the rights to the 2010 non-fiction book The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine by Michael Lewis, to develop it into a film, which Brad Pitt’s Plan B Entertainment would produce. On March 24, 2014, Adam McKay was hired to write and direct a film about the housing and economic bubble. Screenwriter Charles Randolph, who co-wrote the film with McKay, said one of the first challenges was finding the right tone for the film. He told Creative Screenwriting, „In general it was trying to find the right tone that was slightly funnier than your average Miloš Forman comedy, which is all grounded character-based but not so satirical where you got Wag the Dog. Somewhere between there was what I was shooting for. Once I got the tone down, then I went through the plot. The market’s movements provided you with an underlying plot. You make your short deal, then the bank is trying to squeeze you out, and then it all breaks loose. So that was pretty easy, and it provided character arcs against that.“ Two years after Randolph wrote his draft, McKay, as director, rewrote Randolph’s screenplay. It was McKay’s idea to include the celebrity cameos in the film to explain the financial concepts.

On January 13, 2015, Variety reported that Brad Pitt, Christian Bale, and Ryan Gosling were set to star in the film, with Pitt producing the film along with Dede Gardner and Jeremy Kleiner. Plan B Entertainment would finance, with Paramount handling the distribution rights. Before this, Pitt had already starred in the adaptation of the author’s Moneyball, for which he was nominated for an Oscar. On January 14, it was announced that Steve Carell would also star. On April 21, 2015, more cast was revealed by Deadline, including Melissa Leo, Marisa Tomei, Tracy Letts, Hamish Linklater, John Magaro, Byron Mann, Rafe Spall, Jeremy Strong, and Finn Wittrock. Charles Randolph wrote the initial draft. Max Greenfield joined the ensemble cast of the film on April 23, 2015. Karen Gillan tweeted about her involvement in the film on May 8, 2015.

Principal photography on the film began on March 18, 2015 in New Orleans, Louisiana. On March 25, filming was taking place on General De Gaulle Boulevard in the Algiers section of New Orleans. On May 8, Gillan confirmed she was shooting her scenes. On May 20, 2015, filming took place on Mercer, between Prince Street and Spring Street in Manhattan, New York City. On May 22, the production crew recreated the offices of failed investment firm Lehman Brothers in the lobby of the New York State Department of Financial Services in Manhattan. An assistant counsel for the Department of Financial Services played one of the extras in the scene.

On September 22, 2015, Paramount set the film for a limited release on December 11, 2015 and a wide release on December 23, 2015.

The film was released on DVD and Blu-ray on March 15, 2016.

The Big Short grossed $70.3 million in North America and $63.1 million in other territories for a worldwide total of $133.3 million, against a budget of $28 million.

The film was released in eight theaters in Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco and Chicago on December 11, 2015 and earned $705,527 (an average of $88,191 per theater). It set the record for the best ever per-screen gross for a film opening in eight locations, breaking the previous record held by Memoirs of a Geisha ($85,313 per theater), and was the third biggest theater average of 2015 behind the four screen debuts of Steve Jobs ($130,000) and The Revenant ($118,640).

The film had its wide release on Wednesday December 23, 2015 and grossed $2.3 million on its first day. In its opening weekend it grossed $10.5 million, finishing 6th at the box office.

The Big Short has received positive reviews from critics, with Bale’s performance receiving strong praise. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has a rating of 88%, based on 266 reviews, with an average rating of 7.8/10. The website’s consensus reads, „The Big Short approaches a serious, complicated subject with an impressive attention to detail – and manages to deliver a well-acted, scathingly funny indictment of its real-life villains in the bargain.“ On Metacritic, the film has a score of 81 out of 100, based on 45 critics, indicating „universal acclaim.“ Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of „A–“ on an A+ to F scale.

IGN gave the film a score of 8.6/10, praising its „energetic direction“ and making „a complicated tale palpable for the layperson even as it triggers outrage at the fatcats who helped cause it.“ The New York Times‘s „UpShot“ series stated The Big Short offered the „strongest film explanation of the global financial crisis“. Vermont senator and 2016 presidential candidate Bernie Sanders endorsed The Big Short as an „excellent film“. Hamish Popplestone, from Salient, remarked in his review: ‚Go in craving Wolf of Wall Street; come out sticking Bernie’s bumper stickers on your car.‘

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